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BIOL 2214 Online: Anatomy & Physiology I - Rebecca Davis, Instructor: The Assignment

Research help to complete the Pharmacological Agent research paper for Ms. Davis


Each student should select one of the pharmacological agent (prescription medication) listed here for a 400-500 word typed research paper. In addition to the 400-500 word count for the paper, a separate citation page should be included. Sources should be cited using APA format.

The paper should contain the following sections in order with each section labeled with a heading:

1) Title page: Create a separate page that has only this information on it- the name of the drug researched, the author's name (your name), and the institutional affiliation (NWACC)

2) Abstract: Include a heading in bold that states “abstract”. The abstract is on a separate page and is a short, concise paragraph summary of the body of your paper. First introduce your topic, then include what the reader can expect to learn about in the paper.

3) Body: Include a heading in bold that states “body”. This section should be 400-500 words. Include the following information in the body of your paper. Make sure there is sufficient detail in each subsection. Do not overload any one subsection at the expense of another subsection. Include the following subsections in the body of the paper. Each subsection should have a heading in bold.

(a) Basic description of the drug

Include information such as drug class, therapeutic uses, administration, precautions, contraindications, drug interactions etc.  

(b) Pathophysiology

Describe the disease/ condition the drug is intended to treat in terms of pathophysiology, specifically the content necessary to understand the drug and mechanism of action. In other words, what changes occur in the body that lead to the disease or condition the drug is targeting? Be sure to explain in terms of the AP1 course content.

(c) Mechanism of action

It is very important that you relate the information in your paper to anatomy and physiology content. Be sure to explain it in detail in a way that is easily understood by an anatomy and physiology 1 student. Do not use direct quotes from a source as the entirety of this section. You must be able to explain it in your own words and do so in the text of the paper.

(d) Adverse effects

This is more than just a list. Be sure to describe /explain adverse effects in some detail. Explain unfamiliar terms and concepts clearly, sufficient for an introductory Anatomy and Physiology 1 student.

4) References: Put references on a separate page with the heading “references”. Use at least three different scholarly or professional/trade sources outside of the text (OK to use your text, you will just need three additional sources) and reference them using APA format. Select at least 1 print source (book or medical journal, e-versions acceptable) and at least 1 internet source. Sources must come from respected medical/nursing literature. Medical websites, journals and texts are suitable. Note- Wikipedia is not an acceptable source.

Due date: Check the semester schedule for due date(s).

A Note on Plagiarism

(from the NWACC Student Handbook)

Plagiarism results when a student presents the words or ideas of someone else as if they were his/her own. If the words of someone other than the writer are reproduced without acknowledgment of the source or if someone else's ideas are paraphrased in such a way that leads the reader to believe they originated with the writer, then plagiarism has occurred.

Plagiarism can be either intentional or unintentional. Intentional plagiarism is the knowing, deliberate copying or downloading or buying of information with the intent of passing it off as original with the writer. Intentional plagiarism is a very serious form of academic dishonesty that can lead to suspension from the College. Unintentional plagiarism is the misrepresentation of information through ignorance or carelessness.

It is the responsibility of all Northwest Arkansas Community College students to understand what plagiarism is, and to learn the proper methods of documentation so as to avoid this form of academic dishonesty.

The Library offers a workshop on avoiding plagiarism. They have a work-at-your-own-pace Canvas module and a one-hour Live Streaming session. Check with the Library for more information or email them.


Grading will be based on content, mechanics, organization, style, and format. See the rubric below and posted on Canvas for details. 

Drug List

Select one of the following drugs for your paper.

Agents targeting DNA replication

  • Cyclophosphamide (cancer)
  • Vincristine (cancer)

Agents treating skin conditions    

  • Salicylic acid (warts)
  • Isotretinoin (acne)
  • Eflornithine (unwanted facial hair)

Skeletal system agents

  • Alendronate (osteoporosis)

Muscular system agents

  • Dantrolene (MS, cerebral palsy, malignant hyperthermia)
  • Neostigmine (Myasthenia gravis)
  • Succinylcholine (anesthesia)
  • Verapamil (high BP, angina, irregular heartbeat)

Nervous system agents

  • Phenytoin (seizures)
  • Digoxin (heart failure, heart rhythm)
  • Levodopa (Parkinson’s)
  • Propofol (anesthesia)
  • Prozac (depression)
  • Valium or Xanax (anti-anxiety)
  • Metoprolol (high BP, chest pain, heart failure)
  • Botox (wrinkles, sweating, migraine)
  • Isoflurane (anesthesia)
  • Baclofen (spasticity in CP, MS, spinal cord injury)
  • Epidural anesthesia
  • Morphine or dilaudid or fentanyl
  • EpiPen (asthma, anaphylaxis)

Treatments for diseases of the eye               

  • Timolol or Betaxolol or Pilocarpine (glaucoma)

Endocrine system

  • Synthetic human growth hormone
  • Dexamethasone/betamethasone (for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome)
  • Eplerenone (high BP)
  • Humalog or NovoLog (diabetes)
  • Tamoxifen (breast cancer)

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