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Literature: Creating MLA Works Cited Entries

Resources for Literature-Based English Courses

Creating a Works Cited using MLA 8th edition is straightforward once you understand what MLA calls "core elements" and "containers."

Core elements are facts common to most works, such as author and title. These are the core elements for each entry in the order they should be listed and with the proper punctuation.

MLA citation core elements in graphic format is a repeat of the numbered list

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

A container is the place were the source located. For an article, the container is the journal in which it was published. If the article is located in an online database, that database is its second container. The article is IN the journal, which is IN the database. "The container is crucial to identification of the source" (MLA 30).

NWACC's MLA Citation Quick Guide Home

Web Sites / Web Articles

Article on a Website

Always use the full and complete URL. NO link shortening.

DATE FORMAT: DD Mon. YYYY.

Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Website Title, Publication Date, URL.

Scott, Michon and Rebecca Lindsey. "Which Emits More Carbon Dioxide: Volcanoes or Human Activities?" Climate, 15 Jun. 2016, www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-qa/which-emits-more-carbon-dioxide-volcanoes-or-human-activities.

PDF or Document downloaded from a Website

In the 2nd example, the document is part of an online journal which provides each entry as an individual download. For this reason, the journal name was included.

Author. "Title." Website Title, Publication Date, URL. PDF download.

University of Arkansas. Office for Education Policy. "2014 Arkansas Report Card. Office for Education Policy, 2014, www.officeforeducationpolicy.org/downloads/2015/03/2014-report-card-on-northwest-arkansas-schools.pdf. PDF download.

Booker, Jarell. "A Quaint Little Drinking Village with a Climbing Problem." Expressions, 2016-2017. Northwest Arkansas Community College Writing Center, 2017, www.nwacc.edu/web/writingcenter/expressions2016_2017. PDF download.

Website (Whole/Entire) - When there is no date provided, just leave that field out.

Last Name, First Name. Website Title, Publication Date, URL. 

United States Department of Commerce. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, www.noaa.gov.

 

Blog Posts and Post Comments

A blog post is essentially an article on a website and is cited in the same manner. It may be necessary to open the article to find the complete and direct URL.

Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Website Title, Publication Date, URL.Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Website Title, Publication Date, URL.

Schroeder-Gardner, Michelle. "How to Pay Off Your Student Loans." Making Sense of Cents, 17 July 2018, www.makingsenseofcents.com/2018/07/how-to-pay-off-your-student-loans.html.

 

Comments

Citing a comment on the sample blog post above lists the commenter as the author and the description "Comment on" as part of the tile. It may be necessary to open the comment or click on it to find the complete and direct URL. Use the date and timestamp of the comment for the publication date.

DNN. Comment on "How to Pay Off Your Student Loans." Making Sense of Cents, 17 July 2018, 9:07 a.m., www.makingsenseofcents.com/2018/07/how-to-pay-off-your-student-loans.html#comment-429782.

Articles

Article in an Online [Library] Database

Use this worksheet from NoodleTools to capture the correct information.

[vol. = volume number. no. = issue number. Permalink or DOI are interchangeable. NO link shortening.]

Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Journal Title, vol.#, no.#, Publication Year, pp. Page Number-Page Number. Database Name, Permalink URL.

Chatterjee, Srirupa. "Tyranny Of The Beauty Myth In Joyce Carol Oates's 'My Sister, My Love.'" Explicator, vol.71, no.1, 2013, pp. 22-25. Literary Reference Center, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lfh&AN=86009993&site=lrc-live.

Article in a Print Journal

Use this worksheet from NoodleTools to capture the correct information.

Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Journal Title, vol.#, no.#, Publication Year, pp. Page Number-Page Number.

Treglown, Jeremy. "The Fantastic Mr. Dahl." Smithsonian, vol.47, no.4, 2016, pp. 46-55.

Museum Art & Objects

Original Artwork / Object / Sculpture

For artwork viewed in person, use this format. See https://style.mla.org/citing-images-viewed-firsthand-or-online/ for more information. 

"The medium of publication and materials of composition, if important to your discussion, could be included at the end of the entry as optional elements."

Artist Last Name, First Name. Title. Date of composition, Name of Institution housing the piece, Location of Institution (if not listed in name of institution). Medium or materials, if important.

Ceracchi, Giuseppe. Alexander Hamilton. 1794, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, AR. Marble.

Artwork viewed on a museum's website

Please notice there is a period after the date of composition when citing the art viewed on a website. This tells the reader the date the art was created, so as not to confuse its creation date with the date the museum posted the image online. See https://style.mla.org/citing-images-viewed-firsthand-or-online/ for more information. 

Artist Last Name, First Name. Title of Image. Date of composition. Website Name, URL. Medium or materials, if important.

Cassatt, Mary. The Reader. 1877. Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, collection.crystalbridges.org/objects/39/the-reader.

Wall Text

Art or Object in Regular Collection

Wall text for Name of Artwork or Object, by Artist, Museum Name, City.

Wall text for Alexander Hamilton, by Giuseppe Ceracchi, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, AR.

Art or Object in a Temporary Exhibit

Wall text for Name of Artwork or Object, by Artist. Exhibit Name, Open Date-Close Date, Museum Name, City.

Wall text for Landscape with Garage Lights, by Stuart Davis. Stuart Davis: In Full Swing, 16 Sep. 2017-1 Jan. 2018, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, AR.

Images / Photos / Artwork

Reproduction of a Photograph, Illustration, Painting, or Sculpture (in a book, journal, or database)

The place where the image was found (book, database, web, etc.) is the Title of Image's Location. After giving the Title of the Image's Location, provide the publication information for that title and the page number (if a print source) or the URL (if a web source.). Include those elements you can find in the image's location.

Artist Last Name, First Name. Title of Image. Date of composition. Name of Institution housing the piece, Location of Institution (if not listed in name of institution). Title of Image's Location, by Location Author, Publisher, p. [or URL].

Book: 

See https://style.mla.org/images-in-books/ for more information

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages, 10th ed., by Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, Harcourt Brace, p. 939.

Journal or Magazine:

See https://style.mla.org/citing-an-image-in-a-periodical/ for more information. Basically, use standard journal / magazine citation.

Website:

Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975. MOMA, www.moma.org/collection/works/65232?locale=en.

Library Database:

Leonardo, da Vinci. Aerial Screw or Helicopter: det. Codice B (2173), fol. 83v Paris Manuscript B (2173). ca. 1487-1490. Pen and ink, Institut de France. Artstor Digital Library, library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=8CJGczI9NzldLS1WEDhzTnkrX3ogcVl9cSs%3D&userId=hz5BdD0g&zoomparams=.

Image found online using Google Images or similar

The web site where the image actually appears is necessary. You will need to look at the image on its original webpage to find the required information. See https://style.mla.org/citing-online-images/ for full information.

Artist. Title. Date of composition, Name of Museum, City where museum is located (if not part of its name). 

Artist Last Name, First Name. Title of Image. Date of composition. Website Name, URL. 

Lowe, Jet. Photo of profile view of the left side of the Statue of Liberty's head. "This Day in History: Statue of Liberty," by Wendi Maloney, 19 June 2017. Library of Congress Blog, blogs.loc.gov/loc/2017/06/this-day-in-history-statue-of-liberty/.

Photograph found online

If there is no title, provide a brief description of the photo as the title.

If the photograph is part of a larger article, include that information as well. See the example directly above.

Photographer's Name. Title of Photograph, if any. Date Taken. Website Name, URL.

Photographer's Name. Description of photograph. Date Taken. Website Name, URL.

Slocum, Matt. Photograph of Los Angeles Dodgers' Yasiel Puig after hitting a home run in Game 7 of the National League Championship Series baseball game. 20 Oct. 2018. AP Images, www.apimages.com/metadata/Index/APTOPIX-NLCS-Dodgers-Brewers-Baseball/d5ed03ffbedd4d339773136cf80ab0a8/34/0.

Original Artwork / Object / Sculpture

See Museum Art & Objects box.

Interviews / Surveys

Interview

Personal interviews

When you conduct the interview it is called a personal interview.

  • Start with the name of the person you interviewed.
  • Next comes the phrase: Personal interview. Do not italicize or use quotation marks.
  • Follow with the date when you conducted the interview.
  • The interview can be conducted in person, over the phone or video, or via email. Cite them all the same way.

Last Name, First Name of person interviewed. Personal interview. DD Mon. YEAR.

Dobbs, Gwen. Personal interview. 14 Sep. 2016.

 

Published interviews (print or broadcast)

  • The person interviewed is the "author." If the interview has a title, place it in quotation marks.
  • If there is no title for the interview, put Interview by (unformatted) before the interviewer’s name. 
  • List the title of the book, show, or series in which the interview appears in italics. For books, include the author or editor name after the book title. 

Last Name, First Name of person interviewed. "Title of the Interview (if One)." Title of Place Interview Appears, by Author's Name, Publisher, Year, pp. (pages).

Saro-Wiwa, Ken. “English Is the Hero.” No Condition Is Permanent: Nigerian Writing and the Struggle for Democracy, edited by Holger Ehling and Claus-Peter Holste-von Mutius, Rodopi, 2001, pp. 13–19.

Survey or Questionnaire

  • Start with the name of the person who conducted the survey or questionnaire.
  • Next is the name of the survey or questionnaire.
  • Follow that with either word "Survey" or the word "Questionnaire." This indicates the type of instrument used.
  • End with the date or date range it was conducted.

Last Name, First Name. "Name of Survey/Questionnaire." Survey/Questionnaire. Day Month Year survey/questionnaire was conducted.

Lakshmana, Nithin. "Favorite Pickle Types." Survey. 23 Feb. 2016.

Ziehe, Janelle. "What Is Your Dream Job?" Questionnaire. 20-27 Feb. 2016.

Social Media

Facebook Post

  • Title of Post: Facebook posts don't have titles so use the first line of text as the title. If that line is very long use just the first few word followed by an ellipsis (three dots) at the end. If the post is very short, use the whole post as thetitle. Put it inside quotation marks and end the sentence with a period.

  • Image or video only: For a post with no text, describe the image or video in your own words.

Last Name, First Name. "First Line or Beginning of Post." Facebook, Date, URL of post itself, not your newsfeed)

NorthWest Arkansas Community College. "Maria Garcia earned her Associates of Applied Science in Construction Technology from NWACC in 2018." Facebook, 11 Mar. 2019, www.facebook.com/NWACC1/posts/10157381360243598:0.

James, LeBron. "Oh my!!!!" Facebook, 12 Mar. 2019, www.facebook.com/LeBron/posts/10157240631413944.

Tweet

  • Title of Tweet: Tweets don't have formal titles so use the first line of text as the title. If that line is very long use just the first few word followed by an ellipsis (three dots) at the end. If the Tweet is short (less than 140 characters), use the whole Tweet as the title. Put it inside quotation marks and end the sentence with a period.

  • Image or video only: For a Tweet with no text, describe the image or video in your own words.

  • Twitter Thread: The person making the original post is the author. Follow that author's name with the phrase: et al. This abbreviation stands in for the other authors in the thread.

@username (Real Name if known). "Text of Tweet or First Line." Twitter, Date, URL.

@neiltyson (Neil deGrasse Tyson). “Cassini gave us Saturn, but also gave us Earth — as only deep space could reveal: Small. Frail. Lonely. Steeped in darkness.” Twitter, 14 Sep. 2017, twitter.com/neiltyson/status/908453304342073345.

@pronounced_ing (Celeste Ng) et al. Photo of letter from Shirley Jackson. Twitter, 22 Jan. 2018, twitter.com/pronounced_ing/status/
955528799357231104.

Meme on Twitter

See box on Political Cartoons/Memes for more information.

@nsarmoredfrog. “You’ve heard of elf on the shelf, now get ready for . . .” Twitter, 17 Sept. 2017, twitter.com/nsarmoredfrog/status/    909460799365693440

Online Videos / YouTube

YouTube Video

  • There is a difference between a video posted by it creator and a video created by one person, but uploaded by another. If the video is the poster original content, list video under that person's name. See the sample below. Otherwise, list the video under the actual creator, if known, or the name of the video if the creator is unknown. Include the phrase "uploaded by name or username" as described below.
  • If no real name is given for the creator or poster, substitute the username.

Name, First Name of creator. "Video Title." YouTube, Day Month Year, URL.

Smith, Will. "We Lost Him." YouTube, 16 Feb. 2018, youtu.be/BJDGBNFxO7o.

"Can You Solve Amazon's Hanging Cable Interview Question?"  YouTube, uploaded by MindYourDecisions, 12 July 2018, youtu.be/l_ffdarcJiQ.

Noble, Safiya. "Challenging the Algorithms of Oppression." YouTube, uploaded by PdF YouTube, 15 June 2016, youtu.be/iRVZozEEWlE.

Short Online Video (not YouTube)

  • A short video from a site similar to YouTube, such as TED, Vimeo or a general website.

Last Name, First Name. "Video Title." Web Page Name, Publisher (if different from website) Day Month Year, URL.

Katz, David. "The Surprising Solution to Ocean Plastic." TED, Dec. 2017, www.ted.com/talks/david_katz_the_surprising_solution_to_ocean_plastic.

Science@NASA. "Auroras Underfood." Space.com, 11 Oct. 2017, www.space.com/15139-northern-lights-auroras-earth-facts-sdcmp.html.

Streaming or Streamed Film or Episode from a Series

NetflixHulu, Prime Video, library database, etc.

  • Use for a full-length feature film or documentary watched online.
  • Include the name of the streaming service used, such as Netflix, iTunes or HBO Now in italics. If the service is an app, add the word app in regular text after its name.
  • If there is no URL, just skip it.
  • For an episode of a series, put the episode name in italics and include the series number and episode number.

Film Title. Production Company or Studio, Year of original release. Name of Streaming Service, URL.

"Episode Name." Series Title, season #, episode #, Production Company or Studio, Year. Name of Streaming Service, URL.

Green Book. Participant Media/DreamWorks, 2018. Prime Video, www.amazon.com/gp/video/detail/B07KFRF1X5/ref=msx_wn_av.

"Now Am Found." True Detective, season 3, episode 8, HBO, 2019. HBO Now app.

Film from a Streaming Service to emphasize Creator or Performer

Amazon Prime, Netflix, Hulu, library database, etc.

  • If relevant, list performer names after the director's name.
  • If no URL, skip it.
  • For an episode of a series, put the episode name in italics and include the series number and episode number.

Title of the Film. Directed by First Name Last Name, Film Studio or Distributor, Release year. Name of Streaming Service, URL.

"Episode Name." Series Title, Performance by Name, season #, episode #, Production Company or Studio, Year. Name of Streaming Service, URL.

I Am Not Your Negro. Directed by Raoul Peck, Kino Lorber Edu, 2016. Kanopy, nwacc.kanopystreaming.com/video/i-am-not-your-negro.

"Now Am Found." True Detective, performance by Mahershala Ali, season 3, episode 8, HBO, 2019. HBO Now app.

Movies / Film

Movie / Film / Video

If relevant, list performer names after the director's name.

Title. Directed by FirstName LastName, Studio/Distributor, Year.

Moonlight. Directed by Barry Jenkins, A24, 2016.

Moonlight. Directed by Barry Jenkins, performance by Ashton Sanders, A24, 2016.

Movie Trailer

Because these are accessed online, format similarly to a video on a web page.

"Trailer Title." Web Page Name, Day Month Year, URL.

"Moonlight: Official Trailer." IMDb, 2016, www.imdb.com/title/tt4975722/videoplayer/vi2537731865?ref_=tt_ov_vi.

"Moonlight: Official Trailer HD." YouTube, uploaded by A24, 11 Aug. 2016, youtu.be/9NJj12tJzqc.

Single Episode TV Series

  • Including who created the series is not essential, but recommended.
  • Only credit actor's performance if it is important to the citation.

"Episode Title." Series Title, created by First Name, Last Name, performance by Actor First and Last Name, season #, episode #, Production Company, Year of Original Release.

"Say My Name." Breaking Bad, created by Vince Gilligan, performance by Bryan Cranston, season 5, episode 7, High Bridge, 2011.

Single Episode TV Series on DVD

"Episode Title." Series Title, created by Name, performance by Actor Name, episode #, Distribution Company, Year of DVD Release, disc #.

"Say My Name." Breaking Bad, created by Vince Gilligan, performance by Bryan Cranstonepisode 7, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2013, disc 3.

Single Episode Series Streamed or Streaming

"Episode Title." Series Title, season #, episode #, Studio or Production Company, Year. Streaming Service, URL.
"Now Am Found." True Detective, performance by Mahershala Ali, season 3, episode 8, HBO, 2019. HBO Now app.

Political Cartoons & Memes

Political cartoons usually do not have a title. Instead of a title, provide a brief description. They may require some research to 1) identify the creator and 2) determine if it was originally published in print. 

Add the descriptor: Cartoon [This indicates the reference is to an image.]

Political Cartoon on the Web (not in print)

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Cartoon.” Cartoon. Title of Web Site, Publisher (if different than web site title), Publication date, URL.

Zyglis, Adam. "Digital Attack." Cartoon. AAEC, The Association of American Editorial Cartoonists, 13 Mar. 2018, editorialcartoonists.com/cartoon/display.cfm/168087/.

Political Cartoon on the Web, but Originally Published in Print

Ask to your Instructor to see if you are allowed to use the simpler version show above.

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Cartoon.” Cartoon. Title of Publication, Publisher (if different than Title), Publication date, p. (page) # [if known]. Title of Web Site, URL.

Varvel, Gary. "Federal Debt Gorilla." Cartoon. IndyStar, USA Today, 2018. The Week, theweek.com/cartoons/760449/political-cartoon-congress-federal-deficit-gorilla.

Meme

Cite the particular instance or instances of the meme you consult, which maybe on Twitter, Facebook, in an article, etc. Basically, pick one instance and use where that instance is found.

Meme Titles: Many meme genres develop de facto titles, but individual meme examples often lack a title or employ the same formulaic textual framework. Substitute a description for a title, such as Grumpy Cat's Monday (MLA Style Center).

Meme on Twitter - see box for how to cite a Tweet:

@nsarmoredfrog. “You’ve heard of elf on the shelf, now get ready for . . .” Twitter, 17 Sept. 2017, twitter.com/nsarmoredfrog/status/    909460799365693440.

Meme on a Web Site:

"Title or Description." Title of Web Site, Publisher (if different than web site title), Publication date, URL.

"Best Grumpy Cat Monday Meme." Know Your Meme, Literally Media, Ltd., 2017, http://knowyourmeme.com/photos/1295187.

 

Podcasts / Songs / Music

Podcasts from the Web

Start with the name of the host or narrator. After their name, put a comma and describe that person's role in the podcast. For example, they may be the host or the narrator. Use that word after the comma.

Last Name, First Name, narrator. "Title of Podcast Episode." Name of Podcast, season #, episode #, Publisher, date, URL.

Gladwell, Malcolm, narrator. "Puzzle Rush." Revisionist History, season 4, episode 1, Pushkin Industries, revisionisthistory.com/episodes/31-puzzle-rush.

If the podcast is part of larger Web site, include that information..

Last Name, First Name, host. "Title of Podcast Episode." Name of Podcast, season #, episode #, Publisher, date. Website, URL.

Rameswaram, Sean, host. "I See Fake People." Today, Explained, Vox and Stitcher,  20 June 2019. Vox, art19.com/shows/today-explained/episodes/500764bc-c335-4e48-8751-786b126b55e0.

Podcasts from an App

Use the information displayed on the device. If any information is missing, just skip it.

Last Name, First Name, host. "Title of Podcast Episode." Name of Podcast, season #, episode #, Publisher, App Name app, date.

Rameswaram, Sean, host. "I See Fake People." Today, Explained, Vox and Stitcher,  Apple Podcasts app, 18 June 2019.

 

For popular music, the artist is listed as the "author." For classical works, the composer or conductor would be used.

CD

Artist's Last Name, First Name. "Song Title." Album Title, Recording Manufacturer, Recording Date.

Beyoncé. "Mine." Featuring Drake, Beyoncé, Parkwood Entertainment/Columbia, 2013.

Streaming Service

(Spotify, Naxos Music Library, etc.)

Artist's Last Name, First Name. "Song Title." Album Title, Recording Manufacturer, Recording Date, Location of Song, URL.

Beyoncé. "Crazy in Love." Dangerously in Love, Columbia, 2003, Pandora, www.pandora.com/station/play/3364793159982310677.

Leon, Tania. "The Power." Haiku / Inura (In Motion), Albany, 2011, Naxos Music Library, nwacc.naxosmusiclibrary.com/stream.asp?s=166007%2Fnwaccnmlp2%2Fqq7813%5F001.

Online / Visual Album

Artist's Last Name, First Name. "Song Title." Album Title, Recording Manufacturer, Recording Date, URL.

Beyoncé. “Sorry.” Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/. 

Books

A Work in an Anthology or Compilation [Essay, Short Story, etc.]

Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Title of Source, edited by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Publication Year, pp. Page Number-Page Number.

Skelton, John. "Magnyfycence." Medieval Drama: An Anthology, edited by Greg Walker, Blackwell Publishers, 2000, pp. 349-407.

Ebook

  • An ebook—that is, a book that lacks a URL and that you use software to read on a personal device or computer—is considered a version.
  • If you know the type of e-book you consulted (e.g., Kindle, EPUB), specify it instead of “e-book."
  • If the ebook is part of a library database, cite it similarly to an article found in a library database.

Last Name, First Name. Title. E-book, Publisher, Year.

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., e-book, Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Kindle ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Chacón, Daniel. The Cholo Tree. Arte Público Press, 2017. ProQuest Ebook Central, ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/nwacc-ebooks/detail.action?docID=4947300.

Book, Single Author

Last Name, First Name. Title. Publisher, Publication Year.

Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Ballantine Books, 2009.

Book, Two Authors

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title. Publisher, Publication Year.

Burt, Stephen, and David Mikics. The Art of the Sonnet. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010.

Book, Three or More Authors

Last Name, First Name, et al. Title. Publisher, Publication Year.

Woods, Taniesha A., et al. Preparing Early Childhood Educators to Teach Math: Professional Development That Works. Brookes, 2014.

Book with a Translator or Other Contributor

[Editor; Adaptor; Director; Illustrator; Narrator; Performer; etc.]

Original Author Last Name, First Name. Title. Translated by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Publication Year.

[Use also: Edited by; Adapted by; Directed by; Illustrated by; Narrated by; Performed by; etc.]

Murakami, Haruki. Kafka on the Shore. Translated by Philip Gabriel, Vintage International, 2006.

Moraga, Cherrie, and Gloria Anzaldua, editors. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color. State University of New York (SUNY) Press, 2015.

Book with an Edition Number

Last Name, First Name. Title. Number ed., Publisher, Publication Year.

[For example: 2nd ed. = 2nd edition & 7th ed. = 7th edition]

The Dada Painters and Poets: An Anthology. Edited by Robert Motherwell, 2nd ed., Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1989.


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