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General Geology - Katherine Auld, Instructor: Citation

A research guide for students in Katherine Auld's sections.


As a scientist, Professor Auld prefers the Turabian Author-Date style of citation. Use this custom guide prepared by the NWACC Library and approved by Dr. Auld to format your papers. It is based on the official Turabian guide, which is an interpretation of Chicago style.

Turabian's book is available for use at the Library's front desk.


In-text Citations

In-text citations are parenthetical references used to document sources of information in academic and scholarly writing. Include an in-text citation wherever directly quoting an author; paraphrasing, or putting another author’s ideas into your own words; or including dates, statistics, or other information found in a source.

  • Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence, before the period.
  • Include page numbers when available. Skip them if the source does not have page numbers, like an online journal or a website.
  • When there is no author, use the title formatted as in the References list. After the first use, the title can be shortened to the first four (4) major keywords of the title.
  • If there is no date, use n.d.
  • The general format is (Author Last Name Year of Publication, Page #). For example: (Gonzalez 2013, 212) or (Curry n.d.).
  • A newspaper or website citation can often be limited to a mention in the text (According to….). This method is called citing in running text.

References List

A References list includes the full publication information for the sources referenced in your in-text citation, for instance, author, title, publisher, publication date, and so on.

  • Use a new page and title it References.
  • Add two (2) blank lines after the title, References, and before the the first entry in the list.
  • Entries are single spaced.
  • Insert a blank line between each entry in the list.
  • List entries in alphabetical order.
  • Use hanging indents.
  • For more than one author, include them all in the order they appear on the source. List up to 10 authors.
  • For no author, list the source it by its title.
  • Omit publication date if not provided. Use n.d., which stands for no date.
  • For online sources, use the DOI instead of the URL when available. Look for a persistent link, sometimes called a permalink instead of copying from the browser's address bar.


Journal Article from a Library Database

(Gennaro and Osouli 2012, 1291)

Marino, Gennaro G., and Abdolreza Osouli. 2012. "Influence of Softening on Mine Floor-Bearing Capacity: Case History." <em>Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering </em>138, no. 10: 1284-1297. Academic Search Premier.

Journal Article Published Online

(Monro et al. 2018)

Monro, Alexandre K., Nadia Bystriakova, Longfei Fu, Fang Wen, and Yigang Wei. 2018. “Discovery of a Diverse Cave Flora in China.” PLOS One 13, no. 2: e0190801.

Book or eBook

For an eBook, add URL as the last sentence.

(Miller 2016, 49)
The Aliens Are Coming! The Extraordinary Science Behind Our Search for Life in the Universe. New York: The Experiment.

Chapter or Entry in a Book

For an eBook, add URL as the last sentence.

(Renneboog 2017, 615)
Principles of Physical Science, edited by Donald Franceschetti, 614-616. Ipswich: Salem Press.


Replace "Accessed" with "Modified" if a modified date is given. If an actual publication date is provided, use that instead.

(Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection n.d.)

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. n.d. “Sinkholes.” My Water. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Accessed May 30, 2018.


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