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As a scientist, Professor Auld prefers the Turabian Author-Date style of citation. Use this custom guide prepared by the NWACC Library and approved by Dr. Auld to format your papers. It is based on the official Turabian guide, which is an interpretation of Chicago style.
Turabian's book is available for use at the Library's front desk.
Turabian Style Tip Sheets
Official Chicago style, in easy-to-use, printable PDF paper-writing tip sheets for students. Guidelines are per Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th ed.) and are fully compatible with The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).
[Important: Directions from your instructor overrule these guidelines.]
Turabian Author-Date Sample Citations
Provides sample reference list entries by source type. Each sample is accompanied by an example of a corresponding in-text citation.
Turabian Reference List Sample
A sample Turabian author-date style reference list in PDF format.
Turabian Parenthetical In-Text Citation Sample
A sample Turabian author-date style in-text parenthetical citation in PDF format.
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by
Call Number: ASK AT FRONT DESK
Publication Date: 2018-04-16
Chapters include updated advice on finding, evaluating, and citing a wide range of digital sources and also recognize the evolving use of software for citation management, graphics, and paper format and submission. The ninth edition is fully aligned with the recently released Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, as well as with the latest edition of The Craft of Research. Teachers and users of the previous editions will recognize the familiar three-part structure. Part 1 covers every step of the research and writing process, including drafting and revising. Part 2 offers a comprehensive guide to Chicago's two methods of source citation: notes-bibliography and author-date. Part 3 gets into matters of editorial style and the correct way to present quotations and visual material. A Manual for Writers also covers an issue familiar to writers of all levels: how to conquer the fear of tackling a major writing project. Through eight decades and millions of copies, A Manual for Writers has helped generations shape their ideas into compelling research papers. This new edition will continue to be the gold standard for college and graduate students in virtually all academic disciplines.
In-text citations are parenthetical references used to document sources of information in academic and scholarly writing. Include an in-text citation wherever directly quoting an author; paraphrasing, or putting another author’s ideas into your own words; or including dates, statistics, or other information found in a source.
- Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence, before the period.
- Include page numbers when available. Skip them if the source does not have page numbers, like an online journal or a website.
- When there is no author, use the title formatted as in the References list. After the first use, the title can be shortened to the first four (4) major keywords of the title.
- If there is no date, use n.d.
- The general format is (Author Last Name Year of Publication, Page #). For example: (Gonzalez 2013, 212) or (Curry n.d.).
- A newspaper or website citation can often be limited to a mention in the text (According to….). This method is called citing in running text.
A References list includes the full publication information for the sources referenced in your in-text citation, for instance, author, title, publisher, publication date, and so on.
- Use a new page and title it References.
- Add two (2) blank lines after the title, References, and before the the first entry in the list.
- Entries are single spaced.
- Insert a blank line between each entry in the list.
- List entries in alphabetical order.
- Use hanging indents.
- For more than one author, include them all in the order they appear on the source. List up to 10 authors.
- For no author, list the source it by its title.
- Omit publication date if not provided. Use n.d., which stands for no date.
- For online sources, use the DOI instead of the URL when available. Look for a persistent link, sometimes called a permalink instead of copying from the browser's address bar.
Journal Article from a Library Database
(Gennaro and Osouli 2012, 1291)
Marino, Gennaro G., and Abdolreza Osouli. 2012. "Influence of Softening on Mine Floor-Bearing Capacity: Case History." <em>Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering </em>138, no. 10: 1284-1297. Academic Search Premier.
Journal Article Published Online
(Monro et al. 2018)
Monro, Alexandre K., Nadia Bystriakova, Longfei Fu, Fang Wen, and Yigang Wei. 2018. “Discovery of a Diverse Cave Flora in China.” PLOS One 13, no. 2: e0190801. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190801.
Book or eBook
For an eBook, add URL as the last sentence.
(Miller 2016, 49)
The Aliens Are Coming! The Extraordinary Science Behind Our Search for Life in the Universe. New York: The Experiment.
Chapter or Entry in a Book
For an eBook, add URL as the last sentence.
(Renneboog 2017, 615)
Principles of Physical Science, edited by Donald Franceschetti, 614-616. Ipswich: Salem Press.
Replace "Accessed" with "Modified" if a modified date is given. If an actual publication date is provided, use that instead.
(Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection n.d.)
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. n.d. “Sinkholes.” My Water. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Accessed May 30, 2018. http://www.dep.pa.gov/Citizens/My-Water/Sinkholes/Pages/default.aspx.