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APA (7th edition) Citation Guide

NWACC Library APA Citation Style (7th Ed) GuideThe 7th edition of APA citation style was published in October 2019.

Webpages / Web Documents


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of page. Website. http://xxxxx

General copyright dates are not sufficient to use as the publication date. If no creation or publication date is given, use n.d. If the author and website are the same, omit the website.

Example 1: Author, No Date

Corcodilos, N. (n.d.). Keep your salary under wraps. Ask the Headhunter.

In-Text Citation: (Corcodilos, n.d.)

Example 2: Corporate Author

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high.

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2010)

Example 3: Multiple Pages from One Website

If you are using multiple pages from one website that all have the same author and date, differentiate the dates with letters. Be sure that the citations are listed alphabetically by webpage title.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014a). Be safe after a hurricane.

In-Text Citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014a)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014b). Make a plan.

In-Text Citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b)

If both items have n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter:

Northwest Arkansas Community College. (n.d.-a). Enrollment Services.

In-Text Citation: (Northwest Arkansas Community College, n.d.-a)

Northwest Arkansas Community College. (n.d.-b). Involvement means greater success.

In-Text Citation: (Northwest Arkansas Community College, n.d.-b)

Example 4: No Author

Appeal to authority. (n.d.). Logical Fallacies.

When citing as an in-text citation, you may abbreviate the title to the first few words, in quotations, unless the title is short:

In-Text Citation: ("Appeal to Authority," n.d.)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.16 (examples 111-114)

Entire Websites

Simply give the URL of the website in the text:

NWACC Library website ( provides many resources for the students and faculty at Northwest Arkansas Community College.

Source: Publication Manual, 8.22

Entries in Online Encyclopedias


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed.). Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Individual Author

Masolo, D. (2006). African sage philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Stanford University.

In-Text Citation: (Masolo, 2006)

Example 2: Group Author

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.) Antisemitism. In Holocaust encyclopedia. Retrieved October 7, 2019, from

In-Text Citation: (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d.)

Note: If the author is the same as the website, omit the website component. If an encyclopedia is continuously updated and does not have an archived version, include the retrieval date.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (examples 47-48)

Blog Posts


Author, A. or ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Title. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Screen Name

Headsman. (2009, August 17). 1909: Madanlal Dhingra, Indian revolutionary.

In-Text Citation: (Headsman, 2009)

Example 2: Full Name

Wade, L. (2009, August 7). What makes a person homeless? Sociological Images.

In-Text Citation: (Wade, 2009)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 17)

Government Reports


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Individual Author

Haugen, S. E. (2009). Measures of labor underutilization from the current population survey (Working Paper No. 424). Bureau of Labor Statistics.

In-Text Citation: (Haugen, 2009)

Example 2: Organizational Author

For agencies that are part of a hierarchy, you can use the specific agency instead of including the full hierarchy. If you introduce an abbreviation in your first in-text citation, you may use that abbreviation in subsequent citations.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). Your guide to anemia (NIH Publication No. 11-7629).

First Time Citing in-text: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2011)

All Subsequent Times: (NHLBI, 2011)

Note: if the author and website are the same, omit the website.

Example 3: Report Retrieved from Other Site

Matese, M. A. (1997, March). Accountability-based sanctions (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet No. 58). National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

In-Text Citation: (Matese, 1997)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (examples 50-52)

Online Videos (e.g. YouTube, TED)

Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).


Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Full Name

Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube.

In-Text Citation: (Jones, 2009, 1:15)

Example 2: User Name Only

Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube.

In-Text Citation: (Vercamath, 2011)

Example 3: TED Talk

Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences.

In-Text Citation: (Gavagan, 2012)

TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube.

In-Text Citation: (TED, 2016)

Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.

Sources: Publication Manual, 9.8 and 10.12 (examples 88 and 90)

Online Maps


Author, A. A. (Role). (Year). Title of map [Map]. Website. http://xxxxx


Wise, G. D. (Cartographer). (1857). Preliminary survey of the mouth of the Apalachicola River, Florida [Map]. University of Florida.

In-Text Citation: (Wise, 1857)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (example 100)

Online Lecture Notes or PowerPoint Slides

Only include a full reference to lecture notes or class materials that are behind a login screen (such as Canvas) if you are writing for an audience that will be able to retrieve them. Otherwise, cite it as a personal communication.


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Website. http://xxxxx


Preskill, J. (n.d.). Chapter 4: Quantum entanglement [Lecture notes]. Caltech Particle Theory Group.

In-Text Citation: (Preskill, n.d.)

Lakshmana, N. (2019). [Lecture notes on evaluating Internet resources]. Canvas at Northwest Arkansas Community College.

In-Text Citation: (Lakshmana, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (example 102); APA Style: Classroom or Intranet Resources




Photographer, A. A. (copyright year). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Website. http://xxxxx


Zemlianichenko, A. (1997). Russian President Boris Yeltsin dancing at a rock concert [Photograph]. The Pulitzer Prizes.

In-Text Citation: (Zemlianichenko, 1997)



Artist, A. A. (copyright year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Museum, Location. http://xxxxx


Flack, A. (1988). Islandia, goddess of the healing waters [Sculpture]. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL, United States.

In-Text Citation: (Flack, 1988)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (examples 97 & 101)

Press Releases


Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of press release [Press release]. http://xxxxx


Northwest Arkansas College. (2010). NWACC is Designed to Serve the Northwest Arkansas Community [Press release].

In-Text Ciation: (Northwest Arkansas Community College, 2010)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (example 59)

Film or Video Review


Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the film Film, by A. A. Director, Dir.]. Website. http://xxxxx


Barsanti, C. (2011). The Muppets [Review of the film The Muppets, by J Bobin, Dir.]. Filmcritic.

In-Text Citation: (Barsanti, 2011)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.7 (examples 67-68)


Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication.


Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx


Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central.

In-Text Citation: (Miller, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 95)


Facebook Page


Author. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx


Florida Memes. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from

In-Text Citation: (Florida Memes, n.d.)

Specific Posting On Facebook Profile or Page

If you cite a particular post, you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.

  • Include the author name as written (name or an organization).
  • You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
  • Provide the entire posting, up to the first 20 words.
  • Include the URL of the specific post if possible.


Author. (Year, Month Day). Text of Facebook post, up to 20 words [Image attached] [Status update/Video/Infographic/Image]. Facebook. http://xxxxx


CNN. (2013, October 22). Could a mouse's back potentially hold the cure for baldness? A breakthrough may be on the horizon, researchers say. [Thumbnail link] [Status update]. Facebook.

In-Text Citation: (CNN, 2013)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.15 (examples 105-106); APA Style: Reference Examples


Twitter Profile


Author, A. A. [@twittername]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx


Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from

In-Text Citation: (Tyson, 2019)


If you cite a particular post ('tweet'), you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.

  • Include the Twitter username as written (be it a name or an organization).
  • You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
  • Since tweets are limited to 140 characters, you should include the entire text, including URLs.
  • The URL should be for the specific tweet, not the entire feed.
  • Replicate emojis if possible.
  • If an image or video are included, add square brackets before the Tweet indication.


Author, A. A.. [@twittername]. (Year, Month Day). Full text of tweet [Image attached/Thumbnail with link attached/etc] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://xxxxx


Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: [Tweet]. Twitter.

In-Text Citation: (Obama, 2009)

Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (2019, July 15). I love the smell of the universe in the morning [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

In-Text Citation: (Tyson, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 103-104)



Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of caption [Photograph(s)/Video(s)]. Instagram. http://xxxxx


geekallianceatnwacc[@geekallianceatnwacc]. (2019, October 21). More pics from the Ren fair! [Photograph]. Instagram.

In-Text Citation: (Geek Alliance at NWACC, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 107-108)