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History of the American People: Citation Help

Citation and Writing Styles


Turabian is an adaptation of Chicago style.


FORMATTING YOUR PAPER (This is a Level One section heading.)

AMA citation style is intended to prepare a scholarly article for publication in a medical research journal, such as JAMA or New England Journal of MedicineAMA does not address formatting a college research paper. There are no standards on formatting like we'd expect to find. For example, line spacing, page numbers, etc.

Many NWACC instructors provide assignments that spell out the formatting requirements. When the assignment does not provide specific formatting instructions, use these recommended guidelines.

Formatting Guidelines (This is a Level Two section heading.)

  1. Font: Times New Roman 12 pt.
  2. Line Spacing: Single
  3. Margins: 1 inch
  4. Page Numbers: Arabic numerals in the upper right corner (1, 2, 3, etc.)
  5. Student's Name and Information: Upper left of first page, flush against the margin.. Include:
    1. Your Name
    2. Instructor Name
    3. Course Name
    4. Date Due
  6. Title of Paper: Centered on the page in bold type.
  7. Section Headings: See samples above.
    1. LEVEL ONE: All caps, bold, flush on the left margin. Begin content on the line below.
    2. Level Two: Title case, bold, flush on left margin. Begin content on the line below. What is "title case?" Title Case is when the first letter of each main word is capitalized. Example of Title Case.
  8. REFERENCES: Use a Level One section heading.
    1. Section heading: REFERENCES or REFERENCE LIST are both acceptable.
    2. Numbered list (1, 2, 3, etc.)
    3. Sources are listed in the order used in the paper.
    4. Single space entries.
    5. Double space between entries.


Because the current version of AMA Citation Style has some ambiguities, NWACC classes use the formatting shown below. Use of citation generators may not produce the same results and result in scoring or grade deductions. For NWACC assignments, use the following format. More information can be found in the Quick Guide pdf document above.

Entry in an Encyclopedia / Reference Work or a Book Chapter

If it is an ebook or online source, just add the URL & an access date. If it's a print book, just leave those off.

Author (if any). Entry or chapter title. In: Editor’s name, ed. Title of encyclopedia. Vol. # (if any). Edition (if 2nd or higher). City, State (or Country) of publication: Publisher’s name; copyright year:page range (if any). URL. Accessed [date].
Cholera. In: Baker CJ, ed. Red Book Atlas of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 3rd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2017:712-715.‌login?url=‌‌login.aspx?‌direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=‌1364941‌&site=eds-live&ebv=EB&ppid‌=pp_‌712.. Accessed March 13, 2019.

Article or Information from a Website

[If author & name of website are the same, use it as the author and skip listing website.]

Author (if given). Title (or name of organization). Name of the website. URL. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date]. 
DrugBank. Cyproheptadine. Published June 13, 2005. Updated April 11, 2019. Accessed April 12, 2019.
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections Diseases, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology. Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reviewed May 3, 2018. Accessed April 9, 2020. 

Journal Article

(if print, omit DOI & access date)

  • List the names of all authors unless there are more than 6, in which case the names of the first 3 authors are used, followed by “et al.”
  • Journal titles should be listed using their National Library of Medicine (NLM) abbreviation. Find the journal abbreviation in the NLM Catalog.
Author(s). Article title: Subtitle if any. Journal name (using NLM abbreviations*). Year; volume(issue):page range (if any). DOI or URL. Accessed [date].
Khalakdina A, Costa A, Briand S. Smallpox in the post-eradication era. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2016;91(20):257-264. https://proxy01.nwacc.‌‌edu/‌‌‌login?‌url=‌https://‌‌login.aspx?‌direct=‌true&db=ccm&‌AN=‌115590247&site=ehost-live. Accessed October 16, 2018.

Image from a Book1 or a Website2

  1. 10391: Zolpidem. In: O'Neil MJ, Hekcelman PE, Dobbelaar PH, Roman KJ, eds. The Merck  Index. 15th ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2013.
  2. Zolpidem Tartrate 2D Structure. In: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Open Chemistry Database, CID=57487. Accessed June 4, 2018.

Book1 or eBook

(citing the entire book)

1. Author. Title: Subtitle if any. Edition # (if 2nd or higher). City, State (or Country) of publication: Publisher’s name; copyright year.
1. Kotar SL, Gessler JE. Smallpox: A History. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.; 2013.
2. Author. Title: Subtitle if any. Edition # (if 2nd or higher). City, State (or Country) of publication: Publisher’s name; copyright year. URL. Accessed [date].
2. Persen E, Chen LH, Schlagenhauf-Lawlor P.  Infectious Diseases: A Geographic Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017. Accessed October 16, 2018.


Try these videos for more AMA citation help.

Citation Generators

Use these free online tools to automatically generate citations for your works cited/references pages.

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